Curso First Certificate Exam



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Reason, result and purpose






You can show reason in one of these ways:


because / as / since  +  clause

Young people often grow up without any firm idea about the difference between right and wrong, because / as / since parents are too busy working to guide their children.


because of  +  noun

The punishment was severe because of the seriousness of the crime.


You can also use on account of or owing to followed by a noun. These are more formal expressions than because of.

He resigned from the government on account of / owing to his disagreement with the Prime Minister.


to be  +  due to  +  noun


Due to can also be used to show reason:

His illness was due to food poisoning when he was on holiday.


You can show result in one of these ways:


so / such ... that  +  clause

The crime is so serious that the local police cannot handle it.


The relative pronoun that is often omitted in these sentences:
The crime is so serious [ that ] the local police cannot handle it.

Some parents work so hard during the day that they have no energy in the evening.

They have so much work, so many responsibilities, so little free time and so few holidays that they do not talk much to their children.

It is such a serious crime that the local police cannot handle it.

It was such bad weather that no one wanted to go out.

Some parents are such busy people that they can't guide their children.


too ... to

Some parents are too busy working to guide their children.

He spoke too quickly for me to understand.

Some criminals are not old enough to go to prison.


Consequently...  /  So...  /  Therefore...  /  As a result...


These connectors usually come at the beginning of the sentence, followed by a comma. They join ideas between two sentences:

The police often ignore minor crimes. Consequently, many young people feel they can get away with things like theft.

It is sunny. So, it will be very hot today.

You are too nice. Therefore, you tend to be exploited.

Some parents are very busy with their jobs. As a result, they cannot guide their children.


You can show purpose in one of these ways:


to  +  infinitive

Do you eat to live, or live to eat?


so as to / in order to / so as not to / in order not to


The simple infinitive of purpose may not be used with not.


Therefore, it is not possible to say 'Some homeless teenagers steal not to starve'. In this case you must use so as not to, or in order not to. These are more formal than the simple infinitive:

Some homeless teenagers steal so as not to starve.

Some homeless teenagers steal in order not to starve.


so that / in order that  +  modal verb  +  verb


It is important to point out that in order that is more formal than so that:

Young drug addicts commit crimes so that they can buy drugs.

The bank robbers wore masks so that they couldn't be recognised.


in case


When you talk about taking a precaution (doing something because something bad may happen), you use in case.


The verb in the 'in case' clause is in the present tense, even though you are talking about the future. Do not use will after 'in case' :

Call 911 in case of trouble at home.

Every President wears a bullet-proof vest in case someone shoots him.


But you can use the 'in case' clause with a past verb to say why someone did something in the past:

We bought some more food in case Tom came. (= because it was possible that Tom would come)

I drew a map for Monica in case she couldn't find our house.

We rang the bell twice in case they hadn't heard it the first time.


Admiro la paciencia de Mr. Grammar para explicar !!!
En la próxima página podrás poner en práctica todas sus explicaciones ...


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